Mark Changizi's Blog

January 28, 2014



There are those among us who are “health blind”, i.e., handicapped at sensing the health signals most of us easily recognize on others around us. They are the color blind. But we at O2Amp can fix that.



clinicalPerception


1. The Health-Blind Among Us


Despite the presence of modern electronic medical sensing tools, medical personnel still rely on their naked-eye visual skills when examining and judging the symptoms and health of patients (Savin et al. 1997).


But it is not widely appreciated that approximately 5% of medical personnel – 10% of men and 1% of women – are “health blind”, i.e., they are severely perceptually handicapped at sensing the health symptoms of patients. And they – and those that hire them – often don’t even realize.


Who are these “health blind” medical personnel?


Although not widely appreciated, it has long been documented that red-green color-deficients are disabled at seeing veins, vasculature, pallor, cyanosis, jaundice, rashes, bruising, erythema, retinal damage, ear and throat inflammation, and blood in excretions (Dalton 1798; Wilson 1855; Best & Jaenel 1880; Little 1881; Ahlenstiel 1951; Logan 1977; Voke 1980; Steward & Cole 1989; Spalding 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2004; Currier 1994; Anthony & Spalding 1999, 2004; Campbell et al. 1999, 2004, 2005; Reiss 2001; Cockburn 2004; Cole 2004; Changizi et al., 2006, suppl Table 1; Spalding et al. 2012). Even 18th century scientist John Dalton, who was color blind, observed that he “could scarcely distinguish mud from blood” (Dalton 1798).


Even today 10% of the 500 most prevalent medical conditions list skin color changes amongst the symptoms (Changizi & Rio 2009), and a red-green color deficient’s deficit in discriminating reds and greens makes him or her unable to see these everyday health color signals on the skin.


Color deficiency can consequently lead to medical misdiagnosis (Campbell, 1999; Campbell et al., 2004, 2005), and has at various times prevented entry into medical school (Hiroshi, 1998).


If you’re red-green colorblind, then you’re health-blind. And among those not traditionally deemed color deficient, many are mildly so, and thus mildly health-blind.


The graph below shows the reported clinical difficulties among 42 color-deficient doctors surveyed by Spalding (1995). (It should be kept in mind that this particular graph shows reported difficulties, and thus does not capture what the color-deficient doctors don’t realize they’re missing.)


Self-reported clinical perception difficulties from 42 color-deficient doctors (Spalding, 1995).

Self-reported clinical perception difficulties from 42 color-deficient doctors (Spalding, 1995).


2. Color-Deficiency is an Especially Severe Problem for the Medical Profession


A variety of occupations (e.g., pilots, police) routinely require passing a color exam before entry, and in some countries passing a color exam is even required in order to get a driver’s license.


But, except in rare instances (e.g., Hiroshi, 1998), color blindness had not been a formal barrier for becoming a doctor.


Unfortunately, a recent discovery by researchers at our 2ai Labs ( http://2ai.org ) shows that color blindness is not just a problem for medical personnel, but a disproportionate problem for the medical community.


In 2006, we showed that color vision evolved specifically to distinguish health and emotion states on the skin: our peculiar primate variety of color vision evolved to be optimized for sensing the oxygenation modulations hemoglobin undergoes under the skin (Changizi et al., 2006).


Red-green color vision is uniquely about seeing oxygenation, and therefore red-green color-deficients are especially hindered at seeing the skin signals that underlie health signals. Unlike other fields where colorblindness is a handicap but where it is actually fairly unlikely to find perfectly indiscriminable colors to a color-deficient, the oxygenation variations of blood under the skin are completely invisible to the red-green colorblind because they’re missing the evolved machinery specifically designed to detect it.


Color blindness is consequently a critical issue in clinical settings for patient health. Approximately 5% of clinical personnel are handicapped at detecting everyday health signals on the skin (including seeing veins, for example), and yet many are not even cognizant of their handicap. (And neither are the many other personnel who are only mildly color-deficient (sometimes due to aging).)


Color deficiency is also a serious liability issue for medical staff and their employers, and color deficient doctors have been sued on this basis (see citation to News & Observer).


3. The O2Amp Medical Solution for Color-Deficiency


Historically there has been no solution for the color deficient clinician. Varieties of filtered eyewear for color deficients exist that can help them pass Ishihara tests or perceive certain discriminations among objects in the world. But none were designed to enhance the signal that primate color vision evolved to detect: oxygenation variations in the skin (Changizi et al., 2006). And thus no previous color blindness treatment was consistent with the health perception demands of medical personnel.


We at 2ai Labs, having discovered the evolutionary function of color vision, were in the unique position to design optical technology to enhance the signal for which color-deficients are deficient. In particular, we created O2Amp, our company highlighting several distinct optical technologies for enhancing perception of facets of the blood under the skin.


For color deficients our flagship technology is our Oxy-Iso Colorblind Correction Medical Eyewear, designed to amplify and isolate the oxygenation signal coming from under the skin. Color-normals use the eyewear to enhance perception of veins, but color-deficient medical personnel use the eyewear to amplify their minimal baseline sensitivity to oxygenation variations in the skin.


The Oxy-Iso doesn’t merely aid color deficiency…


…the Oxy-Iso aids color-deficiency in a manner consistent with the symptom-, vasculature-, and health-perceptual needs of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.


=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


[See O2Amp’s site – http://o2amp.com – for testimonials and more information. Also see the following for example results on the Farnsworth-Munsell Test: http://changizi.wordpress.com/2013/01/29/the-ravenous-color-blind-new-developments-on-o2amp-for-color-deficients/ ]


“I wanted to let you know how much I have enjoyed using your eyewear, especially the Oxy-Iso glasses. I now use them in all of my leg vein procedures. Being color blind makes finding deeper (reticular) cutaneous veins a challenge; the Oxy-Iso eyewear makes them much easier to see… We actually have the Christie Vein Viewer (one of the IR devices) in our office… Although it is a very cool product, it does markedly alter the appearance of veins and the treatment process itself. While I haven’t used the IR device much for sclerotherapy, I use my Oxy-Iso’s every single time.” – Daniel Friedmann, MD, Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery


“This is exciting. I have not been able to see colors my entire life… They really work. I recommend them.” – Cary M. Silverman, MD, ophthalmic surgeon, Eyecare 20:20. Video review.


“I had to try them, working in the Dental field, colors are very important in many aspects of my practice. They vary from instruments identification, diagnosis of the oral cavity, and many other aspects. I went from the muted colors that I was used to all my life, to what I perceive as a more bold, and brighter red and greens. To me the darker red shades, like maroons and burgandy colors are more lighter with the oxy-iso on. I went from not seeing any numbers on the online color blindness tests, to seeing most of them. It has been stated that there may be some limitations of these online test due to screen settings and ambient light. But going from seeing nothing to almost all of them is truly remarkable to me.” – DKH, DDS, Glen Cove


“After 20+ years of medical education, I had a healthy skepticism about these glasses. I mean, how can you “cure” color-blindness, my cone cells have a mutation and my brain has learned to adapt. My eyes simply can’t absorb light at those frequencies. But, I was intrigued. As a surgeon, being color blind has not affected me as much as you might think, texture is very important, as is consistency, and I think I rely on those cues all the time. However, I do have a problem telling if something is bile-stained versus just bloody, and dark bloody emesis I could only tell by the smell. But as an art lover, and flower lover, being color blind is just annoying. Not to mention trying to shop at places like J. Crew where all the stupid colors are like, “stone” and “sledge”. What? // Anyway, I bought these on a lark, and OH MY GOD, THEY WORK!!! I only get 1 right on the Ishihara color blindness plate test (red-green and some blue-yellow deficiencies), but with these glasses, I got more than half right! It makes everything brighter and so much more intense! I scrolled through a website of Impressionist paintings and it was incredible! Beautiful!! I can see red flowers on trees now!! I can see the red on birds’ wings!! it’s actually almost overwhelming, I don’t wear them very often because it makes me a little sad that I’ve lived 44 years with a muted palette. I haven’t tried them in the OR yet, but I’m on call Wednesday. . . Makes me wish I’d invented or invested.” – Dr. Marie Crandall, Associate Professor of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine


“Currently, I occasionally try them during orthopedic surgeries, but mostly during speys and castrations. Some of the pregnant or recently pregnant dogs/cats (especially cats) have large networks of enlarged superficial vasculature just beneath the skin, and the glasses can be beneficial in identifying and avoiding these during the initial incision.” Dr. Aaron Raney, color-deficient veterinarian


REFERENCES

1. Ahlenstiel H (1951) Red-green blindness as a personal experience. Kodak Research Library, London.

2. Anthony J, Spalding, B (1999) Colour vision deficiency in the medical profession. Br J Gen Pract 49: 469-475.

3. Anthony J, Spalding B (2004) Confessions of a colour blind physician. Clin Exp Opt 87: 344-349.

4. Best, F, Haenel H (1880) Rotgrün blindheit nach schneeblendung. Kin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. Beilagen 45: 88-105.

5. Campbell JL, Spalding AJ, Mir FA, Birch J (1999) Doctors and the assessment of clinical photographs—does colour blindness matter? Br J Gen Pract 49: 459-461.

6. Campbell JL, Spalding AJ, Mir FA (2004) The description of physical signs of illness in photographs by physicians with abnormal colour vision. Clin Exp Optom 87: 334-338.

7. Campbell JL, Griffin L, Spalding AJ, Mir FA (2005) The effect of abnormal colour vision on the ability to identify and outline coloured clinical signs and to count stained bacilli in sputum. Clin Exp Optom 88: 376-381.

8. Changizi MA, Zhang Q, Shimojo S (2006) Bare skin, blood, and the evolution of primate color vision. Biology Letters 2: 217-221. http://www.changizi.com/colorface.pdf

9. Changizi MA, Rio K (2009) Harnessing color vision for visual oximetry in central cyanosis. Medical Hypotheses 74: 87-91. http://www.changizi.com/colorclinical.pdf

10. Cockburn DM (2004) Confessions of a colour blind optometrist. Clin Exp Opt 87: 350-352.

11. Cole BL (2004) The handicap of abnormal colour vision. Clin Exp Opt 87: 258-275.

12. Currier JD (1994) A two and a half colour rainbow. Arch Neurol 51: 1090-1092.

13. Dalton J (1798) Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours. Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 5: 28-45.

14. Hiroshi T (1998) Relaxation of university admission restriction for students with abnormal color vision. Japan Ophthalm 59: 123.

15. Jeffries BJ (1983) Colour blindness—its dangers and detection. Riverside Press, Cambridge, MA.

16. Little WS (1881) Experience of a red-blind physician with one ophthalmoscope. Practical advantage of colour-blindness with a case. Arch Ophthalm 10: 20-22.

17. Logan JS (1977) The disability in so-called red-green blindness. An account based on many years of self-observation. Ulster Med J 46: 41-45.

18. News & Observer. Partially blind, color blind surgeon continues to practice despite lawsuits. http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/news/partially_blind_color_blind_surgeon_continues_to_practice_despite_lawsuits.htm

19. Reiss MJ, Labowitz DA, Forman S, Wormser GP (2001) Impact of color blindness on recognition of blood in body fluids. Arch Int Med 161: 461-465.

20. Savin JA, Hunter JAA, Hepburn NC (1997) Skin Signs in Clinical Medicine. Mosby-Wolfe, London.

21. Spalding JAB (1993) The doctor with an inherited defect of colour vision: the effect on clinical skills. Br J Gen Pract 43: 32-33.

22. Spalding JAB (1995) Doctors with inherited colour vision deficiency: their difficulties in clinical work, In Cavonius CR. Ed. Proceedings of the International Research Group for Colour Vision Deficiency. Kluwer International Publishing: 483-489.

23. Spalding JAB (1997) Doctor with inherited colour vision deficiency: their difficulties with clinical work. In Colour Vision Deficiencies XIII (ed. Cavonius, C.R.) Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 483-489.

24. Spalding JAB (1999) Medical students and congenital colour vision deficiency: unnoticed problems and the cases for screening. Occup Med 49: 247-252.

25. Spalding JAB (2004) Confessions of a colour blind physician. Clin Exp Optom. 87: 344-349.

26. Spalding A, Cole B, Mir F (2012) http://colourmed.com

27. Steward SM, Cole BL (1989) What do colour vision defectives say about everyday tasks? Optom Vis Sci 66, 288-295.

28. Voke J (1980) Colour vision testing in specific industries and professions. Keller, London.

29. Wilson G (1855) Research on colour blindness with a supplement. Southerland and Knox, Edinburgh.


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Published on January 28, 2014 10:02 • 152 views

June 17, 2013

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June 17, 2013: TV
National Geographic’s Brain Games

I’ll be on National Geographic’s Brain Games tonight at 9pm. Here’s a teaser video of me talking about how your brain sees the present (scroll about half way down the page). For more on that topic, see this TED talk.




May 21, 2013: TED
Pruney fingers: A gripping story

Our “rain tread” hypothesis for why we get pruney fingers, at TED. Cartoon by Lippy (Michael Lipman). Voice-over by me. (More information.)




May 21, 2013: COLOR ME KITTY
Parade Magazine: Part I, II

Higgs the Science Cat — whose human is the science writer Faye Flam — has written two pieces in Parade Magazine on how animals see in color, and on our O2Amp technology for correcting it.




April 5, 2013: ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Failing less and less

IdeaMensch interviewed me about being a scientist and entrepreneur.




March 20, 2013: TED
Why we see illusions

I spoke at TED in NYC in December of 2012 on my grand unified theory of illusions. For more information, see my earlier book, The Vision Revolution. (For those with a strong stomach, see this journal article.)




March 18, 2013: OVERSEAS
Harnessed in Korean

My most recent book, Harnessed, has now appeared in Korean translation, with tireless translator Seung Young Noh. For more info about the book, here’s a start: a review by Nobel laureate.




Feb 28, 2013: TELEVISION
ABC’s This Could Be Big

ABC Nightline‘s Bill Weir talked with me about our O2Amp technology, and our Oxy-Iso’s ability to aid with colorblindness.




Jan 29, 2013: 2AI SPIN-OFFS
O2Amp aids the color-blind

Professor Daniel Bor, a red-green color-blind neuroscientist at the University of Sussex and author of The Ravenous Brain, has independently carried out experiments on himself to gauge the extent to which O2Amp’s Oxy-Iso is an aid. The results are very encouraging, helping us better grasp its benefits, and also its limitations. Some press stories: Scientific American / Txchnologist, Slashdot, Diffusion Radio, io9, The Times UK [subscription], BBC, Discovery News, Daily Mail UK, New Scientist, Smart Planet, CBC, Unexplained Mysteries, Telegraph, Voice of Russia, Geek Chic Mama, NY Daily News, GizMag, The Argus, Elite Daily, Columbia Chronicle, Under the Gun, Today, PopSci, ABC News “This Could Be Big”.




Jan 11, 2013: RAIN TREADS
NPR’s Science Friday

I talk with Flora Lichtman of NPR’s Science Friday about our pruney-fingers-are-rain-treads hypothesis.




Jan 9, 2013: DISCOVERY CHANNEL, DAILY PLANET
O2Amp on TV

The Discovery Channel’s Daily Planet did a television segment on our O2Amp technology. Come see! It starts at 4:00. (Coincidentally, the segment just before it, at 2:50, is on pruney fngers.)




Jan 10, 2013: CONVERGING
New ‘Pruney’ Study

New behavioral experiments done at Newcastle find that pruney fingers aid grip in wet conditions. …consistent with our pruney-fingers-are-rain-treads hypothesis, and the evidence we provided last year that pruney wrinkles have the
Science News, Courier,

French students on pruney fingers. ]




Dec 24, 2012: TIME Magazine
New ‘Harnessed’ Study

Maia Szalavitz at TIME Magazine discusses new research providing converging evidence that music culturally evolved to sound like humans moving about evocatively, thereby harnessing our ancient auditory human-recognition sense. The Dartmouth authors of the new study are Beau Sievers, Larry Polansky, Michael Casey, and Thalia Wheatley.




Jan 6, 2013: O2Lamp
O2Amp Moves into Lighting

O2Amp moves into lighting for medical and everyday spaces. Bathe the whole space — no eyewear needed.




Jan 6, 2013: VIDEO
O2Amp-ing with Emon

Filmmaker Emon Hassan, filmmaker and photographer, did a segment with me and the O2Amp (O2Amp).




Nov 15, 2012: ARGENTINA
New review of HARNESSED

“…profound evidence for how these two domains (language and music) separated us from our ancestors.”




Nov 14, 2012: DISCOVER MAG
The Junk in Science’s Trunk

The Colossal Pile of Jibberish Behind Discovery, and Its Implications for Science Funding. Also, I talk about my math proof that science is incremental and “eureka”-prone.




Nov 9, 2012: FORBES
Academia Upside-Down

For Siri’s New Competitor, SkyPhrase, Academia Isn’t Big Enough for AI. My discussion with artificial-intelligence researcher, Nick Cassimatis, at Forbes.




Aug 28, 2012: MSNBC TV
Head Games

In this link, Dylan Ratigan talks to me about my hosting of Discovery Channel’s new show, Head Games.




Oct 29, 2012: VISION REVOLUTION
Japanese translation

My book, The Vision Revolution, comes out in Japanese, via translator Hiroyuki Shabata.


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Oct 25, 2012: SIMPLICITY
MISC Magazine

Robert Bolton interviewed me about science and discovery, with gorgeous art design by Jessica Tien.




Oct 23, 2011: ART
Why Science Is Art

Casey Rentz interviews me about why I love science.




Oct 12, 2012: SPANISH
Human 3.0

A story on my work on Human 3.0, namely on where we’re going as a species. See also this piece.




Sept 19, 2012: REVIEWING
Sight vs Hearing

My review at New Scientist of Seth Horowitz’s book, The Universal Sense.




Sept 13, 2012: DISCOVER MAGAZINE
Dangerously Quiet Cars

“For Stealthy Electric Cars, Auditory Illusions Could Save Lives.” My piece at Discover Magazine, on my idea for adding “smart sound” to dangerously quiet electric cars.




Sept 15 , 2012: Deutschland
Vision Revolution in German

My book, The Vision Revolution, appears in German translation. Two early — good — reviews: Tabula rasa, and ORF.




Sept 13 , 2012: HUMAN 3.0
io9

George Dvorsky writes about “9 Overlooked Technologies that Could Transform the World,” and one is ‘Harnessed’. (More on this idea.)




Sept 11 , 2012: ILLUSION
Spiral Illusion

I take an off-the-cuff shot at the above spiral illusion, in this Natalie Wolchover piece. (My full explanation.)




Sept 9 , 2012: ARTS
Beautiful Brain

Noah Hutton discusses a variety of approaches to pulling art and science together, including my ‘Harnessed’ approach. See also this piece.




Aug 8, 2012: O2Amp
What You See

What does it look like to view through our health-and-emotion-enhancing O2Amp eyewear? We got an artist to illustrate it for you. (See also the O2Amp story.)




July 26, 2012: io9
Gödel Saved Me from Physics

I responded as part of io9′s series on “What Was It?” that got me into my areas.




July 30, 2012: O2Amp
O2Amp, Now on Sale

The first eyewear designed for seeing people. …is now on sale. See the earlier story.




July 6 , 2012: INTERVIEW
TIME Magazine

Maia Szalavitz interviews me on the function of color, origins of music, and our O2Amp.




June 28 , 2012: 2AI TECH
Eyewear for Viewing…People

We at 2AI have invented eyewear technology — the O2Amp — for amplifying perception of emotions and health on the skin of others. …and we’ve received our first shipment from our manufacturer.




June 28 , 2012: IDEA BIRTH
How to get ‘em

The unedited advice I give to students on how to get ideas, at Benchfly.




May 26 , 2012: TELEVISION HOST
Discovery Channel’s Head Games

I’m the principal on-screen science host on Discovery Channel’s new science show, called Head Games. The first show appears on June 3.




June 10 , 2012: EARTHSKY
Harnessed Interview

Jorge Salazar from Earthsky interviews me about Harnessed.




June 7 , 2012: BENCHFLY
Music and Harnessed

Alan Marnett from Benchfly interviews me about Harnessed.




June 6 , 2012: MEDIAPOCALYPSE
Music’s Meaning

Zac Shaw reviews Harnessed:


Changizi’s book makes a lucid, elegant case for a simple hypothesis: “music sounds like humans moving and behaving (usually expressively)” or in other words, “music moves us because it literally sounds like moving.” Harnessed details how virtually every major facet of music has a counterpart in the sound generated from the movement of our bodies and other physical objects in space.




June 2 , 2012: THE ECONOMIST
Prophets of Zoom

Benjamin Sutherland talked to me about why we’re so comfortable with zooming tech.




May 31 , 2012: RADIOLAB
Rippin’ the Rainbow

I consulted with Radiolab for their great show on color vision.




May 19 , 2012: PHIL INQUIRER
Pooch Vision

Faye Flam writes about the evolution of color vision.




May 16 , 2012: FUTURE TECH
Harnessing Pain

Bradley Kreit at the ITFT discusses smart pain.




May 26 , 2012: DISCOVER MAGAZINE
How I turned Japanese

My new piece at Discover Magazine, on the powers of adaptation, and how to change your ethnicity in one week.




May 10 , 2012: CONNECTIONS
Fingers and Culture

Natalie Wolchover asks what would happen if we had six fingers, and touches both upon my research on why animals have as many limbs and digits as they do, and the relationship between digit number and the cultural evolution of numeracy (in light of my book, Harnessed).




May 8 , 2012: REVIEW
VISION REVOLUTION

Jason G. Goldman reviews my earlier book at Scientific American‘s “Thoughtful Animal”: “Changizi combines evidence from comparative psychology, cognitive neuroscience, anthropology, and linguistics in order to lay out a theoretical perspective for the evolution of the human visual system that could potentially revise much of what we think we know about human vision.”




April 26 , 2012: WRITING
Baboons, Harnessed

Reading baboons, and how it relates to Harnessed and my research on the origins of writing.




April 26 , 2012: PRUNEY
What pruney fingers are for

New coverage on why our fingers get pruney when wet. See all the coverage here.




April 26 , 2012: CITIES
Cities are…brains

A piece at Mesh Cities on my research showing how cities and brains get bigger in similar ways.




April 24 , 2012: THE INSTITUTE
What is 2AI?

The Idaho Statesman’s Katy Moeller discusses Tim Barber and my research institute, 2AI, including our research and first intellectual property spin-off.




April 23 , 2012: NOVEL
Human 3.0, the novel

My first novel is finished, and has a cover. It is about what’s next, after humans. See this piece to get an idea of the science behind the novel. Expect to hear more over the next half year…




April 19 , 2012: CRUX
Music: Instinct or Invention?

The Atlantic recently had a debate on whether music is instinct or invention, with Geoffrey Miller versus Gary Marcus. People have been asking me my own view. Here it is, at Discover Magazine.




April 16 , 2012: PHILA INQUIRER
Baboons, Harnessed

Faye Flam at the Philadelphia Inquirer talks about reading baboons, and how the new research goes along with my research showing that writing has evolved to look “like nature,” thereby harnessing our (and other ape) brains.




April 10 , 2012: CRUX
Hacking 3D

My idea to hack and upgrade 3D glasses, and thereby greatly amplify our connection to the movie (or video game) character.




April 6 , 2012: TECH REVIEW
Google’s Glasses: Gobbledeegook?

Listen to my analysis of Google’s Glasses in the voice-over of their teaser video. …a product of small-mammal video-man John Pavlus.




Feb 2, 2012: BIG NEWS for 2AI TECH
The Human Spectacle

Our research institute, 2AI Labs, has an entrepreneurial side, where we have developed new technology for glasses that better connect us to the other humans around us. Jeremy Hsu writes about it at Innovation News Daily / MSNBC.




Dec 23, 2011: BIG NEWS for HARNESSED!
Top Ten Science Book in 2011

I’m excited that my new book, Harnessed, is among New Scientist’s top ten science books of 2011, standing aside other authors I admire.




March 15, 2012: DISCOVER, CRUX
What makes us human?

Are humans “meant” to be doing language and music?




March 15, 2012: TIME MAGAZINE
E-Books: BAD!

Maia Szalavitz writes about the problem with e-books at TIME, including mention of my discussion on this.




March 15, 2012: OVERSEAS
Harnessed, turning Japanese

My book, Harnessed, was just purchased for the Japan audience! And Vision Revolution should appear in Japanese soon.




March 12, 2012: INTERVIEW
Harnessing Bodies in Space

Dr. G of Bodies in Space recently interviewed me about my book, Harnessed, and how it explains who we are today.




Sep 12, 2011: NOBEL
Nobel Reviews Harnessed

Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek took Harnessed home, “read it with fascination,” and reviewed it.




Feb 3, 2012: DISCOVER
What happened to LEGOs?

LEGO used to be king of the creative-combinatorial. Now they’ve taken the model-building route. My piece at Discover Magazine on this. See also the post linked here at the Telegraph by Roger Highfield.




Jan 27, 2012: REVIEW
The Scientist on HARNESSED

“Changizi develops this simple but striking premise to show how language and music have been able to harness our brains,” by Richard P. Grant.




Jan 13, 2012: FRANCE
Our Brain’s Limits

Sabine Casalonga writes a gorgeous article on harnessing and the limits of human brains in Le Monde de l’intelligence. For more on how brains change with size see the links here.




June 29, 2011: PRUNEY GRIP
Pruney rain treads

My new research: What pruney fingers are for. …rain treads. By myself, Romann Weber, Ritesh Kotecha and Joseph Palazzo.




Jan 6, 2012: WIRED
Biology’s Lego Laws

Samuel Arbesman discusses my research on the laws governing division of labor in bodies, brains, ant colonies, circuits, Legos and other networks.




Jan 5, 2012: AMSTERDAM
Art and Design

A piece by Sjoerd Tuinema about my art and design talk at the Museum of the Image.




Jan 5, 2012: REVIEW
Review of Harnessed

Julie Sedivy reviews my Harnessed among the “juicy” books of 2011, at Psychology Today.




Dec 22, 2011: REVIEW
Review of Vision Revolution

Paul Harris reviews my Vision Revolution in the Journal of Behavioral Optometry.




Dec 21, 2011: CREATIVITY POST
Anglerfish and Creativity

Why I’m not a conference-goer. Lessons for creativity.




Dec 7, 2011: DISCOVER MAG, CRUX
Human Intelligence, Burst

Bursting the Bubble of Human Intelligence. What if the chasm between us and them is, instead, a slender fault line?




Dec 7, 2011: PAST BLAST
The Vision Revolutionary

My interview about The Vision Revolution at The Beautiful Brain with Noah Hutton.




Nov 16, 2011: DISCOVER MAG, CRUX
Later Terminator

We’re nowhere near artificial brains.




Nov 15, 2011: DISCOVER MAG, CRUX
What’s wrong with science ed

Engineers and scientists need different motivations. …and the role of Sagan.




Nov 2, 2011: REVIEW
Mind… Harnessed

“Generating controversial theories is not new to this evolutionary neurobiologist.” Frank Bures reviews Harnessed at Scientific American MIND.




Sep 14, 2011: FREAK
Rise of the Apes via Miracle Grow

Coincidentally, my book on the rise of the apes came out the same week as the movie, “Rise of the Planet of the Apes.” And, my book happens to be the only justification around for the movie premise. My guest piece at Freakonomics.




Sep 13, 2011: INTERVIEW
Salt Lake Tribune and Harnessed

My full interview with David Burger of the Salt Lake Tribune.




Sep 8, 2011: WEE WIRED
A Girl Becomes Self-Aware

GeekDad discovers Toy Story‘s terrifying developmental benefits.




Aug 31, 2011: UNCONVOLUTED
Getting a Grip, at Forbes

Can our pruney fingers help us build better rain treads?




Aug 25, 2011: REVIEW
Discover Mag, Harnessed

Review of HARNESSED in Discover Magazine, September, print.


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Aug 25, 2011: PRESS RELEASE
HARNESSED Gets a Press Release

The press release for Harnessed.




Aug 22, 2011: REVIEWS OUT
Master of Distraction

My Wall Street Journal review of Cathy Davidson’s new book, NOW YOU SEE IT.




Aug 22, 2011: HUFF/AOL
Is Language Technology?

Is language a technology? Or, is it innate? Why my book, Harnessed, argues language (and writing and music) are technologies.




Aug 22, 2011: UK
New Scientist

The sounds of movement. New Scientist reviews HARNESSED, by Bob Holmes.




Aug 18, 2011: SCIAM
Cities and Brains

Jason Goldman at Sciam on my research showing that cities are shaped like brains.




Aug 15, 2011: MUSIC
WNYC, Soundcheck

Music, harnessing, and me on WNYC radio.




Aug 15, 2011: CREATIVITY
Crazy-Ridiculous

What to do about all the crazy-ridiculous research?




Aug 9, 2011: HIJACKED
MSNBC’s CosmicLog

Nidhi Subbaraman interviews me about Harnessed.




Aug 8, 2011: INNOVATION
Our Future

Jeremy Hsu interviewed me about how “nature-harnessing” is the key to our future, as well as our present.




Aug 3, 2011: BRAIN PICKED
Maria Popova and HARNESSED

BrainPickings — one of the most influential sites on brain, culture and art — discusses HARNESSED.




July 30, 2011: EXCERPTED
Harnessing Scientific American

And excerpt from my book, HARNESSED, is now at Scientific American.




July 27, 2011: WIRED print
The Secret Sauce in Us

My WIRED UK print piece on how Homo sapiens became modern humans. …the topic of HARNESSED.




July 18, 2011: RADIO
Down Under

Phillip Adams of ABC Radio’s Late Night Live talks to me about the future of humans.




June 15, 2011: BIG BRAINS
The Limits of Intelligence

The feature story in July’s print Scientific American, by Douglas Fox, on how big brains are made. …including my research on the issue. And here is his

podcast on the topic. More info. And see the connection to city organization (also here).




May 22, 2011: HARNESSED UNTAPPED
Wall Street Journal…harnessed

Music sounds like people, moving! The Wall Street Journal‘s Pia Catton interviews me about my new book on music (and speech).




May 21, 2011: TV on CHANGIZI
Dr. Kiki’s Science Hour

My video interview on Dr. Kiki’s Science Hour. I gab about my new book, Harnessed, and on what’s next, after humans. Also, I discuss what we’re doing at 2AI Labs. (Also viewable at Youtube.)




May 12, 2011: FORBES UNCONVOLUTED
The Path to the Brain

What should we unravel next, after the genome? Answer: The teleome, the complete set of an animal’s “powers.”




May 4, 2011: CHANGIZIFYING
Is Academia Eating Its Young?

Bill Benzon, author of Beethoven’s Anvil, on the trouble with academia. Blushing alert: “I take the case of Mark Changizi as an index of the current state of affairs. He’s one of the most brilliant and creative psychologists of his generation, but has chosen to abandon the academic ship because it didn’t give him room to think deep thoughts.” And here’s my

troubles-with-academia piece.




March 25, 2011: FORBES UNCONVOLUTED
3D Movies Could be So Much More

The trouble with “3D Movies” is that they’re not 3D movies so much as “binocular movies.”




February 23, 2011: HUMAN 3.0
Human Transformation, in Seed

My short “manifesto” of sorts about where we humans are headed, in Seed Magazine. (Hint: Not genes, not AI, not Borg.) Andrew Sullivan posts on my “manifesto” on what’s next, after humans. (He may follow my work, as he’s posted on earlier research on the origins of writing.)


~~~

All press stories on Changizi’s research.


~~~

Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, and the author of The Vision Revolution (Benbella Books, 2009) and Harnessed: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man (Benbella Books, 2011). His first book was The Brain from 25000 Feet (Springer, 2003).



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Published on June 17, 2013 05:00 • 262 views

April 11, 2013

“I wanted to let you know how much I have enjoyed using your eyewear, especially the Oxy-Iso glasses. I now use them in all of my leg vein procedures . Being color blind makes finding deeper (reticular) cutaneous veins a challenge; the Oxy-Iso eyewear makes them much easier to see.” Daniel Friedmann, MD, Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery
“I’ve just received a couple of special specs to attempt to reduce my colour blindness, from Mark Changizi and O2Amp. When I first put one of them on, I got a shiver of excitement at how vibrant and red lips, clothes and other objects around me seemed. I’ve just done a quick 8 plate Ishihara colour blindness test. I scored 0/8 without the specs (so obviously colour blind), but 8/8 with them on (normal colour vision)!” Daniel Bor, psychologist, University of Sussex, author, The Ravenous Brain.
“I found the red one to be useful (or, at least, the one that my wife tells me is red!). It makes many colors more vivid, although what looks white without them has just the slightest tinge of pink through the lens. Compared to the other two, it’s much closer to what I have imagined that “normal” people see, and the colors match up with what I’m told they are.” Russell Belding
“Your O2Amp glasses just nearly eliminated my wife’s color blindness! It was incredible to watch her take those tests.” Samuel Arbesman, scientist, author of Half-Life of Facts, writer for WIRED
“…the oxy-iso lens blew me away. All of a sudden, the numbers just appeared on the screen!” Debra Miller Arbesman.
“Putting on the Oxy-Iso lenses is almost scary as it reveals clear and intentional color differences that I could not see at all. It reveals something everyone sees but me.” Luke Harrington
“While the Oxy-Iso glasses don’t magically grant me normal sight, they *do* create a new visual palette that contains much more information about the reds and greens of the world than I can normally see. The cost of this enhancement is a reduction in the fidelity of pure whites, yellows and blues, and an overall darker scene. To paraphrase 2AI Labs, the glasses distribute the confusion so it’s less focused on the red-green. That being said, with good lighting the Oxy-Iso allowed me to successfully complete the Ishihara plate test at nearly 100% accuracy, where before I always failed it in spectacular fashion. Walking around outside, I noticed color differences that I’d never seen before.” Ryan Yokley
“I’m using some of your lenses to differentiate between colours in A-level chemistry as I’m colourblind, they work!” Alastair Paterson
“I have just received the glasses I ordered and I am pleased to say there is a definite improvement in my colour vision.” Keith Rogan
“I looked like a child opening presents. Red screams at you!” Dr. Nochetto
“I wanted to send you a sincere, heart-felt thank you for your work on the O2AMP Oxy-Iso lenses. My boyfriend is red-green colorblind, and after 30 years he is now able to see the rosiness of his niece’s cheeks, the shades of red brick on the streets of Boston, and a full spectrum of colors which he has never experienced. He received the lenses yesterday and he has not taken them off aside from when he slept. Again, thank you so very, very much.” Katie Ireson
“Thrilled I did a Ishihara test. Wonderful! I think it was a good buy.” Mauro Farbene
“A quick scan of the real world and yes there seems to be something to this. The evergreen trees definitely popped more green than the brown grass and leaves. It will not revolutionize my life, but I look forward to carrying one of these lenses in my bag to use whenever I go clothes shopping or similar.” Neckbeard.ca
“My first word when I put on the glasses: “Wow!” I’ve since used that word many, many times. On a 38 plate Ishihara test for red-green colorblindness I scored 50% without the glasses and 100% with them! Before these glasses, I had no idea how dull the world looked through my eyes. Reds really pop. So do blues. I knew that I didn’t have many, if any, green cones so I did not expect much help with greens and, indeed, I only received minimal improvement with greens. I also knew that the glasses would sacrifice yellows and whites and, indeed, they are darker for me with the glasses. I have worn the glasses to see paintings, flowers, television, old photos, and I even stopped in a paint store to see the phenomenal change in color swatches.” Mark S. Kramer (San Diego)
“I wanted to send you a sincere, heart-felt thank you for your work on the O2AMP Oxy-Iso lenses. My boyfriend is red-green colorblind, and after 30 years he is now able to see the rosiness of his niece’s cheeks, the shades of red brick on the streets of Boston, and a full spectrum of colors which he has never experienced. He received the lenses yesterday and he has not taken them off aside from when he slept.” Iris K.
“I can add that as I have had these on more I discovered that I can now play all of those color based tetris like games that I always screwed up before. Recognizing that red’s are actually lighter than I knew was a real revelation as well. Please dont hesitate ..these glasses bring a new level of color to those who otherwise wouldn’t have the chance.” Bobby J. (Florida)
“If your on the fence about these, let me just say that I can honestly say these work, although to the degree of the users ailment will determine the final result, for me, being hopelessly colorblind I can differentiate colors, the reds jump into out, I still fail the tests but I couldn’t care less because I can see the difference in colors now.” David Coates (Columbus)
“My son saw colors for the first time! He is like a kid with a new & important toy! It is like a miracle. Thank you.” Sandra (New Orleans)
“I had to try them, working in the Dental field, colors are very important in many aspects of my practice. They vary from instruments identification, diagnosis of the oral cavity, and many other aspects. I went from the muted colors that I was used to all my life, to what I perceive as a more bold, and brighter red and greens. To me the darker red shades, like maroons and burgandy colors are more lighter with the oxy-iso on. I went from not seeing any numbers on the online color blindness tests, to seeing most of them. It has been stated that there may be some limitations of these online test due to screen settings and ambient light. But going from seeing nothing to almost all of them is truly remarkable to me.” DKH (Glen Cove)
“I am a physician, and even a simple sorethroat has been a challenge. As soon as I put these glasses on I ent through the Ishihara Test with my colleagues and they said I looked like a child opening Christmas presents. Hahaha! Reds scream at you! The contrast with greens is truly remarkable. My colleagues where impressed by how veins stand out, it is really something big.” Dr. M.
“Certainly do what I need, to help me fill my job requirements, very happy. Thank you very much O2 amps!” Jean-Guy Sasseville
“Without the Oxy-Iso he could “see” by tracing with his finger 4 of the Ishihara plates. After he could see all but 2 of the trickier ones and was able to trace those.” Justin Nyquist


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Published on April 11, 2013 20:17 • 351 views
“I have had no eye-strain after about 4 hours surgery with this glasses. I could see the operation view well, it looks like compensated with Photoshop.” Dr. Kei Nomura, Chief of Center for brain and spine surgery – Aoyama General Hospital
“…students can watch real blood flow, by blocking and squeezing veins, easier than bare eyes. I had ‘wows’ from the students.” Dr. Tohru Murakami, Professor of Anatomy, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
“I’m the parent of a 3 year old severe haemophiliac and we are learning to do IV infusions at home. For the time being, that means mom and dad are practising vein finding and establishing a port on each other. There is definitely a distinct difference in our vein finding ability with the glasses on: Its a great confidence boost. I find that really bright light improves the effect dramatically. Whereas without the glasses, bright light can have a bleaching effect on the visual field; with the glasses on, veins truly stand out like a road map.” [Kept anonymous.]
“…I see a dramatic difference.” Phillip Svehla, Phlebotek
“I got the O2 Amps today and what else can I saw other then they are amazing.” Stephen Courson, Nurse, U Miami
“…a striking visualization of what lies beneath the skin.” Dr. Barbara Changizi, Director of Neuromodulation, Mt. Sinai Medical Center
“…veins were obvious with the dark purple eyewear.” Jason Goldman, developmental psychologist and writer for Scientific American.
“I have successfully used the darkest pink glasses to start many difficult IV’s. Once, in an attempt to place a line in a child, only a small circular region of the vein was visible, and so its orientation imperceptible. But with the Oxy glasses, enough of the vein became visible that its orientation could be seen, and the line placed.” Jake Youren, St. Alphonsus Medical Center.
“A car accident victim complained in the ER of chest and abdomen pain, and although no bruising was apparent, with the Hemo-Iso glasses one could clearly see the bruised impression of the seat belt on her chest and abdomen.” Jake Youren, St. Alphonsus Medical Center.
“The small surface vessels seem to stand out nicely and when doing quick scans for veins it is quite helpful. The darker shade is much more functional in the back of the well lit ambulance and as advertised, the lighter shade is better for all around use.” Dan Ruegsegger, The largest Ambulance / EMS company (AMR)
“All the customers noticed that [the Oxy-Iso] eyewear really improves our vision to see the veins. They think it might be very useful for blood withdraw, specially in kids. Also, they noticed that glasses protects a lot the eyes, considering it as personal protection device.” Rodrigo Didario, distributor in Brazil.
“The glasses are a great hit with the staff on the Msed mobile hospital unit. During the height of [Hurricane] Sandy, we successfully delivered a preterm baby at 35 weeks in a church. I used the glasses to detect oxygenation as the child came out and it helped prevent intubation knowing that vital information. The story made it to the news as well as the discovery channel which just filmed a documentary on how the innovation and technology of the mobile hospital.” Jason Steinfeld, registered respiratory therapist.
“I wanted to let you know how much I have enjoyed using your eyewear, especially the Oxy-Iso glasses. I now use them in all of my leg vein procedures . Being color blind makes finding deeper (reticular) cutaneous veins a challenge; the Oxy-Iso eyewear makes them much easier to see.” Daniel Friedmann, MD, Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery
“I am a physician, and even a simple sorethroat has been a challenge. As soon as I put these glasses on I went through the Ishihara Test with my colleagues and they said I looked like a child opening Christmas presents. Hahaha! Reds scream at you! The contrast with greens is truly remarkable. My colleagues where impressed by how veins stand out, it is really something big.” Dr. M.


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Published on April 11, 2013 20:16 • 203 views

March 22, 2013

Lens blanks for…people.


Does your lens company care enough to have O2Amps or just clear plastic? O2Amp Oxy-Amps are the new baseline lens blank for eyewear, here shown with five different polarized sunglass shades overtop.


By removing narrow slivers of optical noise, our Oxy-Amp lens blanks provide superior color vision, and are the new starting point for lens blanks. Here are some of its advantages.



Nature-validated color-enhancement. Our optical filtering technology provides a strict enhancement to color vision, as nature intended it. In particular, we designed our Oxy-Amp to enhance perception of oxygenation variations in the skin, the very signal our red-green color vision evolved to detect. It works by removing narrow slivers of optical noise — a kind of “glare” — emanating from the spectral signals from other people.
Enhanced perception of people. Perception of people and their emotions, moods and states are enhanced. It’s the first eyewear and light-filtering technology designed for seeing…people.
Maintains perception of the world. The Oxy-Amp filter blocks only a tiny amount of light, and is designed not to interfere with other aspects of perception; the world retains its intrinsic colors and beauty.
Smartly shades the sun. For sunwear, the Oxy-Amp begins by cutting out sun glare in exactly the spots which simultaneously enhance our evolved perception of color.
Ready for optical add-ons. Because the Oxy-Amp targets only a thin sliver of wavelengths, it makes the perfect starting point for the addition of further optical enhancements, whether it be prescription curves, polarization (see photo above), or filters designed for specific sports or habitats.
Part of the lens blank itself. And our Oxy-Amp is achieved via a dye, and is part of the UV-protected polycarbonate structure from its very formation.

~~~


Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, a managing director of O2Amp, and the author of HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man and THE VISION REVOLUTION. He is finishing up his new book, HUMAN 3.0, a novel about our human future, and working on his next non-fiction book, FORCE OF EMOTION.



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Published on March 22, 2013 12:51 • 187 views

March 20, 2013




I spoke at TED in NYC in December of 2012 on my grand unified theory of illusions. For more information, see my earlier book, The Vision Revolution. (For those with a strong stomach, see this journal article.)


~~~


Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, a managing director of O2Amp, and the author of HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man and THE VISION REVOLUTION. He is finishing up his new book, HUMAN 3.0, a novel about our human future, and working on his next non-fiction book, FORCE OF EMOTION.



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Published on March 20, 2013 11:59 • 89 views

March 17, 2013

harnessed_korea


My most recent book, Harnessed, has now appeared in Korean translation, with tireless translator Seung Young Noh. For more info about the book, here’s a start: a review by Nobel laureate.



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Published on March 17, 2013 21:05 • 84 views

March 6, 2013

Whether you like our O2Amp “Oxy-Iso” for its applications in medical, colorblindness, or sunwear (see below), you’ll be excited to get the technology in Smith frames if you’re one of our first 50 orders starting today.


For a limited time, our Oxy-Iso eyewear will be in Smith frames. …the first 50 orders beginning today.


We’ve been selling our O2Amp eyewear for medical and colorblindness purposes, but — the secret is — I have been wearing our technology for the last year for a different reason altogether. …as sunglasses.


Of our current three eyewear technologies, the Oxy-Iso has for me been the perfect sunglasses. Dark enough for sunny days, but what’s fantastic about it is that it enhances how everyone looks around me in a way that’s frankly a joy. We hadn’t anticipated this — this cosmetic side to our technology. Nor did we figure that one might actually enjoy this enhanced view of people and their emotional skin states. I personally love it!


The Oxy-Iso enhances and isolates perception of variations in the oxygenation of blood just under the skin of those around you, but it blocks perception of variations in the concentration of blood under the skin. People, and their skin, look better both for what the Oxy-Iso amplifies, and for what it blocks. Seeing the enhanced variations in oxygenation mimics, we believe, what younger skin looks like. And seeing less of the variations in the concentration of blood helps diminish perception of skin irregularities. In all, people somehow seem more brilliantly vital and alive, although that’s not doing it justice. (The world also turns out to look great.)


We now have prototype polarized, non-pink, sunglass versions of one of our other technologies, the Oxy-Amp, so it will soon also be a candidate for sunglasses. It is this Oxy-Amp technology that is a strict enhancement to our color vision, enhancing the oxygenation signal by blocking very narrow bands of noise coming from the skin. By shading the sun at these noisy bands, one shades the sun smartly in those bands that actually hinder what color vision is principally for. But, alas, these darker versions of the Oxy-Amp aren’t available quite yet.


But the Oxy-Iso makes a great pair or sunglasses, and is available now. In fact, starting today we have a promotion where the first 50 orders of the Oxy-Iso will be inside Smith frames rather than our usual frames.


~~~


Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, a managing director of O2Amp, and the author of HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man and THE VISION REVOLUTION. He is finishing up his new book, HUMAN 3.0, a novel about our human future, and working on his next non-fiction book, FORCE OF EMOTION.



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Published on March 06, 2013 09:31 • 95 views

Whether you like our O2Amp “Oxy-Iso” for its applications in medical, colorblindness, or sunwear (see below), you’ll be excited to get the technology in Smith frames if you’re one of our first 50 orders starting today.


For a limited time, our Oxy-Iso eyewear will be in Smith frames. …the first 50 orders beginning today.


We’ve been selling our O2Amp eyewear for medical and colorblindness purposes, but — the secret is — I have been wearing our technology for the last year for a different reason altogether. …as sunglasses.


Of our current three eyewear technologies, the Oxy-Iso has for me been the perfect sunglasses. Dark enough for sunny days, but what’s fantastic about it is that it enhances how everyone looks around me in a way that’s frankly a joy. We hadn’t anticipated this — this cosmetic side to our technology. Nor did we figure that one might actually enjoy this enhanced view of people and their emotional skin states. I personally love it!


The Oxy-Iso enhances and isolates perception of variations in the oxygenation of blood just under the skin of those around you, but it blocks perception of variations in the concentration of blood under the skin. People, and their skin, look better both for what the Oxy-Iso amplifies, and for what it blocks. Seeing the enhanced variations in oxygenation mimics, we believe, what younger skin looks like. And seeing less of the variations in the concentration of blood helps diminish perception of skin irregularities. In all, people somehow seem more brilliantly vital and alive, although that’s not doing it justice. (The world also turns out to look great.)


We now have prototype polarized, non-pink, sunglass versions of one of our other technologies, the Oxy-Amp, so it will soon also be a candidate for sunglasses. It is this Oxy-Amp technology that is a strict enhancement to our color vision, enhancing the oxygenation signal by blocking very narrow bands of noise coming from the skin. By shading the sun at these noisy bands, one shades the sun smartly in those bands that actually hinder what color vision is principally for. But, alas, these darker versions of the Oxy-Amp aren’t available quite yet.


But the Oxy-Iso makes a great pair or sunglasses, and is available now. In fact, starting today we have a promotion where the first 50 orders of the Oxy-Iso will be inside Smith frames rather than our usual frames.


~~~


Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, a managing director of O2Amp, and the author of HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man and THE VISION REVOLUTION. He is finishing up his new book, HUMAN 3.0, a novel about our human future, and working on his next non-fiction book, FORCE OF EMOTION.



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Published on March 06, 2013 09:31 • 127 views

February 28, 2013




ABC Nightline‘s Bill Weir talked with me about our O2Amp technology, and our Oxy-Iso’s ability to aid with colorblindness.


~~~


Mark Changizi is Director of Human Cognition at 2AI, a managing director of O2Amp, and the author of HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man and THE VISION REVOLUTION. He is finishing up his new book, HUMAN 3.0, a novel about our human future, and working on his next non-fiction book, FORCE OF EMOTION.



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Published on February 28, 2013 13:36 • 76 views